It is related to malic acid and can be made from malic acid, it is involved in the production of energy (in the form of adenosine triphosphate [ATP]) from food.
History: Fumaric acid has been used with some success to alleviate psoriasis symptoms. Typically, the amount used in these trials begins with 60-105 mg per day of fumaric acid esters, gradually increasing to as much as 1,290 mg per day.
Technicals: Fumaric acid is a normal constituent of tissues as an intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle.
Sources: It is found in small amounts in a variety of plants and is essential to the respiration of animal and vegetable tissue. It is formed in the skin during exposure to sunlight, as well as being available as an oral supplement and as a preparation for topical use.
Caution: Kidney disorders have been reported in people taking fumaric acid esters, possibly due to taking large amounts too quickly. Most studies have reported gastrointestinal upset and skin flushing as a side effect; some have found decreased white blood cell counts with prolonged use.
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